Tuesday, February 25, 2020

John Keble and the Oxford Movement Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

John Keble and the Oxford Movement - Essay Example These young men were educated in a university that is immersed with the ideals of the past. They had been educated under the care of a church that put premium on traditions which was considered to be the most precious part of the church's heritage. [2] The movement also sought to express their belief that the Church of England was a direct descendant of the Christian church that was established by the original Apostles of Christ. Later on, the movement was also invariably called the Tractarian movement after its series of publications called the Tracts of the Times which ran from 1833 to 1841.[3] The members of the movement were, in some way, can be branded as idealists. They came forward when they thought that the Church that they serve is veering away from the original teachings they were educated upon. The Oxford members believed at that time that the ancient power and practices of the Church should be re-established. Because of their belief in the sacredness of the church based on its origin, they are convinced that the church is a divinely instituted and commissioned institution. Therefore, because of its sacredness, all of the church's teaching should be observed even down to the smallest of these teachings.[4] For the kingdom of God to descend upon the earth, these men believed that the Church must be made absolute in all its doctrines and practices. Harmony can only be achieved by submitting unconditionally to the wiser authority of the Church which had vigorously preserved the teachings of its leaders inspired with divinity.[5] Because of these beliefs, the movement was criticized by some as subscribing to Romanism. To this, the defenders of the movement argue that the greatest difference between the Oxford movement doctrine and the Romanists was that the Oxford members rega rded the leaders of the Church to be divinely inspired as against the belief on an infallible human being which is personified by a pope. To renew people's deep and personal devotion to the Bible, the Oxford members sought to establish religious community life. Consequently, sisterhoods were established in the name of the movement, the first of which was founded in 1845. Charity and social work became the primary works of these sisterhoods. Although among the men, communities were slow to expand and are fewer in number.[6] The movement also stressed the importance of adhering to the high standards of worship which resulted in the many changes later on in church services. These changes involved the physical beautification of churches, the proper wearing of vestments, intonation of services and the emphasis on hymn singing. Not all these changes that were introduced resulted in favourable responses. There are times that these changes aroused strong opposition from fundamentalists that culminated in the riot of 1860 at St. George's in East London.[7] Because the movement centred on the forms of expression in the churches, especially between the years 1857 and 1871, the followers of the movement were also labelled as ritualists. The ritualists' desired changes caused a public uproar which led to the passing in 1874 of the Public Worship Regulation Act by Parliament. The act is virtually a means of the State to put down Ritualism. The churchmen took this as an affront to their spiritual independence and the struggle between the

Sunday, February 9, 2020

Inernationalization of UK Businesses in Brazilian Market Essay

Inernationalization of UK Businesses in Brazilian Market - Essay Example As the discussion highlights  many companies adopt different strategies in order to grow in the Brazilian market and to successfully achieve the goal of improved bottom line. Brazil is a country which cannot be avoided to do business because of the huge market size. Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world, and it is one of the most populous countries, as well. It has high GDP and legal system, which encourages international companies to tap this market. However, not every company can be successful in the Brazilian market. Size of the country market does not guarantee success in that market. There are many factors, which play a role in the success and failure of international companies. Among such factors, culture has a crucial role. Not only in Brazil but also in every country, culture plays a vital role for success and failure of international companies.  This study stresses that  globalization is growing becoming an integral part of the business in the business world . It has changed the competitive landscape for doing business in local and international markets as a matter of fact that competitive pressures arise not only from local players but also from the international players. On the other hand, in contrast to the pace of globalization, the success rate of businesses in the international market remains under constant challenges.  It is practically a sin for business operating in today’s competitive landscape if it ignores internationalization of business.