Saturday, December 28, 2019
When I grow up Im going to be... How often you must have said the words above when you were younger! You wanted to be a motion-picture star, an acrobat, a fireman, or a sailor. Now that you are older you realize that choosing a vocation is not a simple matter. In fact it is one of the most difficult and most important decisions of your life. Upon it depends your health, happiness, and usefulness. Soon you will be one of many boys and girls who each year go out in search of jobs. Start preparing for your lifework now while you are at school. Study purposefully. You will save yourself many future headaches. True, a few find their lifework accidentally, but there are hundreds who never find their right vocations at all. About 20 perÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Have you a pile of manuscripts hidden away? Do you give puppet shows for the neighborhood children? Do you like to fuss with flowers and plants? Out of your hobby may grow your vocation. As a boy Thomas Edison like nothing better than to tinker with the apparatus in his laboratory. Whatever you choose as your lifework, your chances for success depend in a large measure on your physical and mental well-being. Although your health is largely what you make it, there are individual differences in strength and endurance, which must be considered in the choice of a vocation. The work of an actor, aviator, or reporter is physically more arduous than that of a librarian or writer. A physician, whose rest is interrupted by emergency calls, must have robust health. Select a vocation for which you are physically qualified. When young people enter a job or university/college, school officials are called upon to write letters of recommendation. What is your attendance record? Your school record? Do you participate in sports, other activities? Are you trustworthy? Even when there is a labor shortage, employers want to know these facts about their prospective employees. You are making now the record upon which the schools recommendation will be made. You are interested in a certain broad field of work it may be scientific, mechanical, or commercial. Or it may be artistic work, work with nature, or with people. You n also have a rough ideaShow MoreRelatedPersonal Identity Essay968 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthat have shaped me into the person that IÃ¢â¬â¢m today are my family, the people that I grow up around, and some of the events In my life. There are many events that have shaped me into the person that IÃ¢â¬â¢m today and not revengeful. Also the people that I have grown up around has dramatically helped shape me into the person I am and not winsome and irrevocable. My family is one of the main things that have helped shape me into the responsible and capable person IÃ¢â¬â¢m yo day. One of my early memories winsomeRead MorePersonal Goals Paper518 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesGoals Paper I want to step out of my comfort zone and challenge myself in the arena of public speaking. I want to meet new people. I want to share my ideas with people who havent always known me. I want a boat. I want to enjoy myself at work as much as possible. I want to grow. I want to learn. I want to feel challenged. I want to create something that is mine. I want to make my parents proud. I want the feeling of accomplishment. I want more responsibility. I want more money. I find myself onRead MoreMy Moms Role Model For My Mother900 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesperson IÃ¢â¬â¢m super grateful for. She is my main role model and I wish to be half the person she is. Someday I wish to be half as strong she is, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve watched my mom go through so many things growing up and she pushes through everything. She has a had a major influence on my life with teaching a whole lot of things that I will need to have a successful life. She has taught me how to be stronger person, that nothing is going to be handed to you, to never give up, and always to help others when you canRead MoreMy Strengths And Weaknesses Of Leadership Skills1333 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages When you enter a room and walk in to a group of people you may not know it but you are demonstrating group leadership skills. These leadership skills have a large range of things you may have to master. Some of these skills well be strengths and some well be weaknesses showing what type of leader you could be in a group. Because of this I am going to go over three of my strengths that I have identified with over time, and three weaknesses that I have identified with over time. 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It hangs in the back of my mind like a migraine headache that builds a little bit every day until it becomes the whole world, blinding you to anything else outsideRead MoreWriting Is Not My Cup Of Tea1215 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWriting, the simple word that sends most kids running for the door. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily run, but writing is definitely not my cup of tea. A good piece of writing usually doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have my name written on it because itÃ¢â¬â¢s a good piece of writing. It has perfect grammar and spellin g and the commas are in their right places. Good writing isnÃ¢â¬â¢t just about the basics, though. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s about how things move together and how there is a perfect balance of long and short sentences. A good piece of writing is supposed
Friday, December 20, 2019
During my junior year of high school, I enrolled in an introductory psychology course. I instantly fell in love with the subject. I was fascinated by learning about human development, brain functioning, and various factors that influence behavior. I especially enjoyed learning about abnormal psychology and different mental disorders. The following year in high school I continued to study in the advanced placement psychology class, and as I entered college I decided to major in psychology in hopes to pursue a career as a therapist. I always felt the most fulfilled when I was helping others and desired to have an occupation that would allow me to help people overcome traumatic events or cope with mental illnesses, which I felt would be rewarding for me as well as the individuals I would work with. After my first year of college, I spoke with a Marriage and Family Therapist about my career goals. He informed me about the social work profession and explained that I could become a therapist with a MSW that could be completed in one year of graduate school. I decided to investigate social work and took an Introduction to Social Work course. I discovered that social work focuses on helping vulnerable populations and clients discover strengths they can use to improve their situations and find solutions to their problems. Social work differs from other mental health professions by being an inclusive field, incorporating various aspects that affect human behavior with influences ofShow MoreRelatedMy Career As A Sex Therapist Essay1326 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesI. Introduction The occupation that I have selected for my Career assignment was a Sex Therapist. I am a senior here at the University of Wisconsin La Crosse and my career goal is to become a Sex Therapist in the future. 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Thursday, December 12, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Business Strategy Activities and Portfolio. Answer: Introduction The organisation selected for the purpose of this assignment is XXX Co that is based in Singapore and is an industry participant of the private sector. The organisation is engaged in a diversified portfolio and caters to many needs of organisations engaged in different business activities. In light of the various changes in the business environment, the company required further diversification of its business activities. It undertook a re-alignment of its objectives and decided to enter into a new market of Myanmar the last frontier of South East Asia. In order to expand its activities the management of the company took the decision of investing in the country, primarily in property development. The aim of the company is to develop properties for every industry in Myanmar along with residential properties. One of the main objectives of the company is to expand its market share and recognition by entering into new markets. The decision to enter Myanmar was taken in the year 2013 by t he management of the company keeping in view the vision and mission of the company. In essence, the objectives of the company in entering the new market are as follows: To increase the market share of the organisation To increase its customer and client base To establish the brand name of the company beyond national borders To make the industry more competitive The above objectives are well endowed and form the basis of the expansion intended by the company. The organisation formulates and implements policies and strategies in order to achieve these objectives in an effective manner and enhance its efficiency. Environmental Analysis The environment in which an organisation operates is very much important as it exerts a considerable amount of influence on the business activities of the concern. The elements of the business environment are unique and affect the organisation in different manner (Frankland et al. 2013). For a better understanding of these elements, close analyses of these elements are is required to be undertaken separately. Business environment has been broadly classified into macro and micro. Macro environment consists of the external factors that affect the organisation while micro environment consists of the internal factors of the organisation. The most striking difference between macro and micro environmental elements is that the former is uncontrollable and the latter is controllable by the concerned organisation (Yamak, Nielsen Escrib-Esteve, 2013). In the given case scenario, the selected organisation has entered into a new market and it is imperative to analyse the business environment in order to attain success in this venture of the organisation. External Analysis A proper analysis of the external environment can be done with the help of PESTLE analysis. This elaborate framework helps in defining and analysing the key environmental variables and determines their future effect on the organisation and its activities. Identifying opportunities in the business environment and exploiting them tends to increase organisational competitiveness and gives it an edge over its competitors. PEST Analysis Myanmar is situated in south Asia and has a predominant cultural background. As a third world country, it is dependent on its core cultural values and it has much influence on the manner in which business is conducted in the country (Shabanova et al. 2015). Political Factors Political unrest and corruption in the Myanmar may lead to slower the expansion of the company, thus hindering the growth rate. However, in this country, there is suitable framework for inflow of capital. The changes in the political regime of Myanmar influence the policies that are favourable for international trade. Prevailing tax structure of this nation will affect the quantum of profit made by the organisation Economic Factors Healthy growth of the economy and increase in its GDP will increases the demand for the companys product; i.e., property. In the same way, the lower is the unemployment rate; the higher will be the spending capacity of the nation. High inflow of FDI to the nation will increase in competitiveness in the market. There is an increase in government spending on building infrastructure of the country, will provide a proper set up for the business to establish and grow up. The higher will be the per capita income, the more demand will be generated. Social Factors Cultural background of the people influences the companys success factor. The social status of the people determines the sales of the companys product. Investment pattern of the people of this country will decide whether company will get support from the new market, to expand its business. Major means of livelihood of the people determines whether they would like to develop property or buying property will be considered as luxurious activity. Social attitudes and social taboo of the local people will also affect the new business. Technological Factors Status of technological advancements in the country will determine the process innovation rate to develop new property in the nation. Use of internet and social media will enable the company to promote its product. The development in the telecommunication industry in Myanmar will help the company to operate easily (Granger Schroeder, 2013). The technologies used in development of real estate will affect the property development. SWOT Analysis Opportunities Following are the most important opportunities for the organisation: Potential of real estate industry of the country and there is ample of scope for property development The market is expanding with the development of infrastructure in the country Availability of cheap labour Healthy growth of the economy Threats Following are some significant threats of doing business in the country: Political regime changes The economy is cash based and skilled labour is rare Civil unrest The factors pointed out under the heads of opportunities and threats that will have a significant impact on the business decisions of the organisation. In the present global business environment, business organisations are aiming for maximising the wealth of its shareholders along with profit maximisation. Expanding by making investments overseas tends to fulfil this objective of the organisations (Navarro, Arenas Rondn, 2014). In the given case, the company tends to exploit the opportunities available to it in the new market of Myanmar. The company has to carefully consider the drawbacks and threats of the new business environment and devise policies accordingly in order to achieve its objectives. Porters Industry Analysis Model Porters five forces is a model that is used to perform an effective industry analysis for business organisations (Lee, Kim Park, 2012). The analysis of the five forces is as follows: Threat to New Entrants Political and social unrest discourage the new entrants to enter the property market. Presence of corruption in this country also hinders the entry of a firm. The cost of property market is uncontrollable. There are several government policies and barriers to entry in the real estate market. The new firm has to create new brand identity in order to gain the market share, which is very challenging in this industry. Moreover, in this country, there is little access to distribution channels. Power of the Supplier The location and concentration of the suppliers is strong in this industry. However, the company can made an overall cost differentiation in order to decide from whom to supply its inputs. The firm can get raw materials from the local site. The transportation and insurance of the material purchased from the supplier. Threats of Substitutes Buyer behaviour of purchasing property changes with time. Consumption pattern of the customers may reduce the demand for property market, if people want to spend their money more on other goods than in property. Customers may prefer to buy products from the other firms if they find price is too higher. Availability of rent may be considered as substitute of property buying. Buyer Power Customers perception, tastes and preferences influence the demand generated in property market. Customers are price sensitive and too high price of the property may not be affordable by the people of this country. Moreover, bargaining power of the customers to avail leverages is also high. Buyer-seller ratio is also high, hence seller has much power over price. Competitive Rivalry Concentration of the industry causes high competition in the market. If the capacity of the firm is too high, then it will enjoy competency over the rivals. There is barrier to exit; hence the market is more competitive in nature. Through diversifying the products, the firm can gain competitive advantage over its rivals. The cost involve in the business process will influence the competitiveness of the firms. The less cost is involved, the more the firm will enjoy advantage over other firms. Internal Analysis The company has entered into a new territory of Myanmar with the objective of diversifying and expanding its business activities. With this clear-cut objective, the company formulated policies and strategies to give effect to its managements decision. International trading is a big decision to make for the management of an organisation. The management is required to conduct a thorough analysis of the business opportunities available in Myanmar. As mentioned earlier, business environment is composed of internal and external factors. As external factors are uncontrollable, it becomes imperative to for the organisation to focus on the internal elements so that overall development can be made possible. Internal analysis tends to build efficiency of the organisation and develops core competencies that help the organisation to get a competitive edge over its competitors. Internal analysis closely determines the resources available to the organisation that can be put to use to achieve the b usiness objectives of the organisation through its business activities (Slack, 2015). Internal analysis also encompasses the capabilities of the employees of the organisation to ensure that optimum use of the organisations resources is done. Therefore, it can be said that internal analysis deals with resources of the organisation, capabilities of the employees and the development of core competencies. A smooth coordination among all three elements is required for achieving the pre-determined objectives of the organisation. Porters Value Change Template Value chain can be said to be a set of activities undertaken by an organisation in order to provide valuable goods and services to its customers in the selected market segment. In essence, it can be said that creating value for its customers is one of the main objectives of an organisation. This becomes necessary when an organisation enters a new market with a new set of targeted customers. This concept acts as a tool that helps an organisation in effective decision-making (Cameron Green, 2015). The concept of value chain can be explained with the help of Porters Value Chain template. The concept was developed by Michael Porter in the year 1985 and was explained in his book. The value chain template gives a set of competitive strategies than an organisation can used to gain competitive edge over its competitors by providing superior quality goods and services and that carry a certain quantum of value for the customers (Goetsch Davis, 2014). The value chain template can be explained with the help of the diagram below: Diagram 1: Porters Value Chain The template subdivides the activities of an organisation into two broad categories namely primary activities and secondary or support activities. An organisation performs these activities in order to provide value products and services to its customers. The primary activities consist of the following: Inbound logistics Operations Outbound logistics Marketing and sales, and Services On the other hand, secondary or support activities consist of the following: Infrastructure of the organisation Procurement Technological developments, and Human resource management Primary Activities Operations: These are the main business activities performed by an organisation that determines operational efficiency and profit for it (Hayes, 2014). Operations include managing the entire process of converting inputs into output that are ready to be sold or offered to the customers. In the given case scenario, the selected company is engaged in developing property related to hotels, tourism, hospitality and residential property. Thus, operations will include converting raw materials required to build properties into finished buildings and complexes that will be used as hotels, hospitals and residences. Marketing Sales: marketing and sales is one of the most important functions in the real estate sector. Marketing the finished properties to the appropriate target customers is very important in order to sell the properties. Without effective marketing activities, the properties will remain as stock in trade and will tend to block a huge amount of capital investment made by the company (Hill, Jones Schilling, 2014). Selling of such capital-intensive properties is a daunting task and requires a considerable amount of effort from the sales personnel. Inbound and Outbound Logistics: Inbound and outbound logistics are important but holds less importance than operations and marketing activities in the given case. Inbound logistics include movement of materials, parts and other inventories that are required for the construction and development work (Hamilton Webster, 2015). Outbound logistics is less likely to take place in the given case as properties are immovable and disposing off depends on the marketing and sales function of the organisation. Secondary Activities Infrastructure of the Organisation: Infrastructure of the organisation is a very important factor that determines the effectiveness of organisational capabilities. The facilities and the infrastructure of an organisation are required to be strong for their employees to carry out their responsibilities in an efficient manner so that the objectives of the organisation can be achieved (David David, 2016). A proper infrastructure is very important for an organisation to carry on its daily operations. Procurement: Procurement is the process of obtaining the required material to carry on the daily operations of the organisation. The procurement process has to be executed and monitored in an effective manner so that costs can be controlled along with increasing the efficiency of the operational activities of the organisation. Technological Advancements: In order to maintain the market position, an organisation is required to adapt itself with the technological changes that are taking place within the industry. Implementing the advanced technological processes tends to increase the capabilities of the organisation and helps it to develop core competencies (Wild, Wild Han, 2014). Ultimately such an implementation leads to dynamism and ensures sustainability. Human Resource Management: Human resource remains at the core of success of every business organisation. An organisation does not work by itself. It is run by the people of the company who are designated specific job roles that are to be performed in an effective and efficient manner (Mellahi Frynas, 2015). Managing this human resource is an art and determines long-term success of the organisation. Analysis of the Activities of the Organisation The given company is entering into a new market with the objective of increasing its market share, profit making and achieving economies of scale and time. The strength of the company lies in some of the most important factors discussed above. The first and the strongest point of the company is its infrastructure. The company is capable of expanding itself and has adequate capabilities to adapt to the nee culture and do business. It also excels in its operations and marketing activities (Botha, Kourie Snyman, 2014). The properties to be developed in the country will be backed by efficient marketing activities so that effective sales takes place generating revenue and profits for the company. Last but not the least is the use of effective and updated technologies in the development of the properties. On the other hand, in the new country and in new market conditions, procurement has to be worked on by the company. Labour is cheap in Myanmar and the company wishes to exploit this oppo rtunity in order to control costs of the projects undertaken and to be executed in future. VRIN Framework VRIN model helps the management of the organization to determine the competitive advantage of the company. This particular model emphasize on four different characteristics of the company. These four characteristics are valuable, rare, inimitable and organization. Below, the competitive advantage of the organization is analysed with the help of VRIN model: Valuable (YES): The most important characteristic of XXX Co is its work force, which is highly skilled. The employee base of the company includes experienced engineers, who can design the buildings with styles. At the same time, the lower level employees of the organization also have expertise knowledge in their field of work. The quality of property that XXX Co provide to its customers, makes the company valuable in the industry. At the same time, the customer relationship management is another strong characteristic that enhance the value to the organization. Rare (YES): The properties like, buildings for shopping mall or residential apartments that XXX Co provides to its customers is of unique design. The architecture and the raw materials used by the organization to build the properties are of high quality. The quality of the architecture is rare in Singapore and Myanmar. Inimitable (YES): The quality of properties and the service that XXX Co provides to its customers are hard to imitate. The competitors need to identify and employ creative workforce, which is not easily available and to employ creative work force, competitors need to invest high amount of money. Organization (NO): As XXX Co is in the real estate industry, the products and services provided by the company have substitutes. There are many competitors in the industry, which can provide substitute properties at lower price. However, the quality of the substitute products is not up to the standard of XXX Cos products or properties. Analysis The VRIN framework supports the strengths of the company explained in the above portion. The resources used by the company in the form of its operational efficiency, its capabilities, marketing activities and core competencies and the use of its technology are unique and is an added advantage to the company (Jenkins Williamson, 2015). The company is to exploit these advantages to achieve economies of scale and generate substantial amount of revenue and profit for itself. This in turn, will increase the wealth of its shareholders as excellence in operations will increase the share price of the company. Strategic Change Process Change is inevitable and the business environment is always exposed to various types of changes. Most of the changes take place in the external environment. Accordingly, the internal environment of an organisation has to be changed in order to keep parity with the extensive changes in the external environment (Cai Yang, 2014). An organisation is required to manage such changes in the business environment in an efficient manner so that it is able to continue its business activities and attain sustainability. The change management process can be explained by the help of evolutionary theory. Evolutionary Theory The prime objective of this theory is to represent that organisations are required to evolve in tackling the changing environmental forces that affect its operations and business activities. Change management is a daunting task and has to be addressed in a proper manner so that the exact requirement of the hour or the change is properly identified and resolved. The theory uses four generic processes such as variation, selection, competition and retention (Wetherly Otter, 2014). These four processes describe the manner in which an organisation evolves from the past in order to adapt to the present required changes and maintain its competitive edge. These processes serve two purposes. It integrates the adaptive organizational capability into evolutionary theory and lights up features of strategy-making that other theoretical concepts did not inspect. Each firm behaves as ecology, where strategic initiatives emerge. Variation: When an individual of a company wants to express his/ her special skills and improves career through strategic initiatives, variation takes place in the strategy. The initiatives enhance the competencies and everything take new shape if the initiatives draw on the companys resources. Selection: By administrative and cultural mechanism selection takes place. Through regulating allocation of resources and attention to strategic initiatives, selection works. Retention: The organizations initiative to survive and grow in the external environment is important. Retention can take the form of learning at organizational-level that leads to success of the company. Competition: Companys strategic initiatives struggle to acquire resources required for growing and generating the importance of the firm. Internal competition between the strategic initiatives is linked with the external competition. Therefore, through variation of strategies; selection of proper strategies; retention of effective strategies and using strategies to increase competency can help an organization to grow and sustain over the years successfully. The evolution process of a business depends on the how well the organizational culture has been understood. At first, it is important to know the function of the firm. Then by continuing with regular business activity, the firm will take different strategic decisions based on the circumstances of the internal and external scenario. With time its approach changes and its strategic plan also varies according to that. New ideas evolute from the top management and the functioning style of the firm do change. The firms try to diversify in various domains and change the idea of the traditional practice of focusing on particular product. With time the, competition pattern of the market also changes. The organization must adapt changes and make changes in its strategic decision. With time, the objective of the organization also changes and new set of goals and objectives evolute. The evolution takes place in the marketing strategy of a company or in the industry as a whole. The role of the e mployees also changes. Different departments of a business have been evolved to control the numerous business activities. The evolution process of an organization is a continuous improvement process. This is because; a firms business practices and its strategies continue to change and improve over time in order to sustain in the ever growing competitive market. In the given scenario, the selected company is entering into a new cultural arena and is required to devise proper policies and strategies in order to adapt itself to this change. The market conditions are new along with the nature of demand and requirements of its targeted customers. The company is required to adopt a total new approach in dealing with its customers and its employees along with all its stakeholders in the new market (Grant, 2016). In this business expansion plan, the most important factor of the external environment is culture. The company is required to use local labour force for developing its properties. Along with labour, it is required to procure materials locally and is also required to follow the local legislative structure prevailing in Myanmar. Thus, the company is required to adapt to this important change in order to attain success in its activities (Mellahi Frynas, 2015). Presently, the company is in the process of implementing the policies it has formu lated to adapt to the cultural changes and according to the external environmental factors that pose as a barrier to its activities. McKinsey 7s Model This model is actively used in organisations to access, evaluate and monitor internal changes within an organisation. The model can be explained with the help of the following diagram: Diagram 2: McKinsey 7s Model All the elements are required to be coordinated in a proper manner so that the organisation is able to manage the chnages in its internal and external environment (Cavusgil et al. 2014). The model helps in identifying the present requirements and the re-alignment of the organisations objectives and operations. SAFE Model The SAFE model is used to evaluate the current position and situation of the organisation. It helps in determining whether the policies and strategies developed, adopted and implemented by the organisation is appropriate in achieving the objectives of the organisation. SAFE stands for Suitability, Acceptability, Feasibility and Evaluation. It creates a nexus between strategic objectives and strategic policy making infrastructure of an organisation. In the given case scenario, the SAFE model will help in determining whether the decision of the company to expand its operations to Myanmar is a feasible and profitable one or not (Fleisher Bensoussan, 2015). Conclusion and Recommendations The decision of the company to expand its operations in Myanmar carries with it many strategic advantages for the company. The company will be able to exploit the opportunities in the country with the help of its capabilities and core competences. The company will be able to generate a considerable amount of revenue and profits for its investors. A proper analysis of the business environment has to be done and on a continuous basis as the requirements and demand change over time. In order to achieve the defined objectives of the company, it is required to use its strengths to counter the barriers it is facing or is assumed to face in near future. Risk management has to be done in an effective manner so that company is able to achieve sustainability and remain solvent in the long-run. After an in depth analysis of the situation, recommendations can be provided for the company. It is suggested that the company should analyse the business environment of the target market at regular intervals. Moreover, it must re-align its business activities with the requirement or aims of the company. It is recommended to put in place an effective risk management mechanism to control and manage risks in the new property market. The company should put in place an internal control and internal check system in its operational function of Myanmar. It is also recommended to co-ordinate in order to alleviate cultural differences. The performance of the organization must be evaluated at a regular interval, in terms of sales and productivity of the workers. It is also suggested to attract stakeholders by maximizing profits to increase the market share. By diversifying in several domains, the company can increase its client base. By offering unique offers or discounts on property market or real estate assets, and by offering quality product, this company can establish brand value in Myanmar. For creating brand value, it is suggested that the company should improve customers loyalty by adopting relevant policies. It is recommended to maintain the quality of the property developed by the company, so that with time customers trust is entrusted. By innovating different process and with proper implementation of strategic tools, the firm can make itself more competitive in the industry. It is recommended to this company, it must ensure safe-guard against possible risks that can take in the property market. For example, demand may suddenly fall due to economic degradation; sudden outflow of capital and also due to speculation about the property market. By taking precautions, the company can prevent itself from unexpected and unfamiliar circumstances. To achieve sustainability, the company must take into account the environmental aspect of the business and make sure that it does not pollute the nature or it does not have any kind of negative externality on the people of Myanmar. References Botha, A., Kourie, D., Snyman, R. (2014).Coping with continuous change in the business environment: knowledge management and knowledge management technology. Elsevier. Cai, S., Yang, Z. (2014). On the relationship between business environment and competitive priorities: The role of performance frontiers.International Journal of Production Economics,151, 131-145. Cameron, E., Green, M. (2015).Making sense of change management: a complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change. Kogan Page Publishers. Cavusgil, S. T., Knight, G., Riesenberger, J. R., Rammal, H. G., Rose, E. L. (2014).International business. Pearson Australia. David, F., David, F. R. (2016). Strategic Management: A Competitive Advantage Approach, Concepts and Cases. Fleisher, C. S., Bensoussan, B. E. (2015).Business and competitive analysis: effective application of new and classic methods. FT Press. Frankland, R., Mitchell, C. M., Ferguson, J. D., Sziklai, A. T., Verma, A. K., Popowski, J. E., Sturgeon, D. H. (2013).U.S. Patent No. 8,484,111. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Goetsch, D. L., Davis, S. B. (2014).Quality management for organizational excellence. pearson. Granger, M. J., Schroeder, D. L. (2013). Integrating the Internet into the business environment.Internet Research. Grant, R. M. (2016).Contemporary strategy analysis: Text and cases edition. John Wiley Sons. Hamilton, L., Webster, P. (2015).The international business environment. Oxford University Press, USA. Hayes, J. (2014).The theory and practice of change management. Palgrave Macmillan. Hill, C. W., Jones, G. R., Schilling, M. A. (2014).Strategic management: theory: an integrated approach. Cengage Learning. Jenkins, W., Williamson, D. (2015).Strategic management and business analysis. Routledge. Lee, H., Kim, M. S., Park, Y. (2012). An analytic network process approach to operationalization of five forces model.Applied Mathematical Modelling,36(4), 1783-1795. Mellahi, K., Frynas, G. (2015).Global strategic management. Oxford University Press. Mellahi, K., Frynas, G. (2015).Global strategic management. Oxford University Press. Navarro-Garca, A., Arenas-Gaitn, J., Rondn-Catalua, F. J. (2014). External environment and the moderating role of export market orientation.Journal of Business Research,67(5), 740-745. Shabanova, L. B., Ismagilova, G. N., Salimov, L. N., Akhmadeev, M. G. (2015). PEST-Analysis and SWOT-Analysis as the Most Important Tools to Strengthen the Competitive Advantages of Commercial Enterprises.Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences,6(3), 705. Slack, N. (2015).Operations strategy. John Wiley Sons, Ltd. Talaja, A. (2012). Testing VRIN framework: resource value and rareness as sources of competitive advantage and above average performance.Management: Journal of Contemporary Management Issues,17(2), 51-64. Wetherly, P., Otter, D. (2014).The business environment: themes and issues in a globalizing world. Oxford University Press. Wild, J., Wild, K. L., Han, J. C. (2014).International business. Pearson Education Limited. Yamak, S., Nielsen, S., Escrib-Esteve, A. (2013). The role of external environment in upper echelons theory: A review of existing literature and future research directions.Group Organization Management, 1059601113511663.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Business Intelligence Em System for A Model Framework? Answer: Introduction Business Intelligence is a part of Information Management, which is a vast field concerned with the infrastructure of a system, collection of data and managing those data on a regular basis. BI (Business Intelligence) is a technological process for analyzing data and the information to help in maintaining a business organization or a particular enterprise. Through the process of Business Intelligence executive, business managers can make more informed and wise decision about their organization (Printer et al. 2013). BI framework provides several views of business operations such as historical view, ethical view, predictive views and more. Some of the functions of Business Intelligence process are reporting, processing, online analytical processing, data mining and complex event processing (Kemper et al. 2013). Every business decision about a system starting from basic operating decisions such as product positioning, product pricing to strategic decisions that includes priorities and goals of the organization. This business report is all about Business Intelligence, which is a part of Information Management system. This report explores several areas of BI framework and compares BI frameworks basic concepts and benefits. Several aspects, which have been discussed in this report, includes the background of BI, issues identified in BI Framework and how BI is used in Information Management. For this report, Virgin Atlantic Airlines have been chosen to show how the industry implemented BI in their internal business operations. Background of Business Intelligence Business Intelligence is a technology driven process that helps to make firm and wise decisions in industries. Business Intelligence or BI framework is completely based on the technological process that includes data warehousing, data mining, analytical processes and more (Baars 2013). BI framework encompasses a range of tools, methodologies, and applications that allow any particular organization to collect data from internal and external sources, analyze the collected data and atlas helps to make the report from the collected data from several sources (Kemper et al. 2013). BI framework can also include forms of analytical data approach such as text mining, data mining, statistical analysis and more. Business Intelligence data typically is stored in a data warehouse that holds the information about the company. In addition, Hadoop systems are also being incorporated in the BI framework in an increasing way (Foshay 2014). Companies deal with lots of unstructured data on a daily basis , so to analyze and process those data Big Data approach of Hadoop is also incorporated in the industries. Business Intelligence System at its initial stage was described as an automated system that can organize and process unstructured data of the various sections of an industry or any organization (Bure, Blecha and TuÃâÃ nk 2015). In late 1990's the term BI became familiar with the marketplace when some of the new companies hit the market. Issues identified in BI Framework This section identifies some of the issues that are evolving with the use of BI framework in the industries such as ethical issues and social issues that are arising from the new technology used by the selected organization which is Virgin Atlantic in this case (Baars 2013). Ethical Issues in Business Intelligence Regarding Business Intelligence, the focus of ethical concern is mostly into data security and data management, data integrity and data privacy. A Recent report shows that ethical issues can be confusing and can jeopardize in global organizational culture. Avoiding the issues created in a workplace is the best possible solution for maintaining a well-developed culture of an organization (Mungree 2013). The main ethical issues that can arise while discussing Business Intelligence are regarding data privacy, spyware, recording the online activity of a user. Below some of the topics are briefly discussed. Privacy: Information can be easily monitored, captured and stored without the intervention of the user, so data privacy is a big issue in Business Intelligence (Trumpy et al. 2015). Recording online activity of a user: With the help of cookies, the privacy can be hacked like it can be tracked which files were accessed or which websites were visited. Ethical Practices in Virgin Atlantic Virgin Atlantic, is a British airlines company. The company has its headquarters in Crawley in the United Kingdom. As the aviation industries are an important part of tourism system, the ethical practices are also necessary to be practiced in the industry (Mungree 2013). Several ethical practices such as Integrity practice, confidentiality and privacy practices are discussed below. Integrity practices: As the Virgin Atlantic is a large aviation industry it maintains a large database for keeping its clients information. So maintaining data integrity is an important aspect of the industry (Ashley 2015). Confidentiality and Privacy practices: For an organization, employees and customer records are most important (Rouhani, Ghazanfari and Jafari 2012). The company has to run several security checks on the collected information so that they can be kept confidential from outside networks. Social issues arising from new technology used by Virgin Atlantic In this section, some of the problems are highlighted by using new technology used by the Virgin Atlantic. Previously for keeping records, the company used to maintain the traditional file-based approach but as the days passed and the organization grew larger company decided to maintain different database systems for the different operations they have (Trumpy et al. 2015). A different database for keeping employees record and another other database for other functions. As there is much more initial resource utilization in maintaining database handling, so the company is facing several problems as the cost of maintaining database is expensive (Mungree 2013). Also maintaining several databases are complex as the database designers; database administrators must understand this functionality to take the advantage of using database system. Business Intelligence in Information Management Through this section, several aspects of Business Intelligence are discussed such as traditional file system, DBMS, data mining and data warehousing and more (Trumpy et al. 2015). Managing data through traditional File System The traditional file system is an early approach of storing data and arranging computer files and the information of the file. A file system is a method of storing data and organizing computer files (Mungree 2013). In earlier days of information management organizations used to maintain their information through traditional file-based system (Foshay 2014). Traditional files are designed and process functionally so the quality of information are affected such as details, accuracy, inconstancy and wastage of storage space are some of the common problems that are found with the traditional file systems (Rouhani 2012). A diagram of a traditional file-based system is given below. Figure 1: Traditional File system (Source: Foshay 2014, pp-25) In the above example given there are different files maintained for different purposes such as for accounting and finance, for manufacturing, for human resource (Kemper et al. 2013). User log in to different terminals to access the data about the different topics and different topics are controlled by different applications, so there is no interconnection between different topics (Kuziemsky 2014). If manufacturing table is changed then, the user must also update other table accordingly manually to get the result reflected in the whole system (Baars 2014). In addition, if a company has different branches in different locations, then if a database table is updated in one location then the company have to update manually all the tables in all other locations. Database and DBMS in Information Management Using Database for storing data is a traditional upgrade over the traditional file system. Some startup companies use Microsoft Access as their database software. Database Management System (DBMS) is a collection framework of software that allows the user to store, modify and extract information from the database as per the requirements of the user (Foshay 2014). In this report for the selected organization that is Virgin Atlantic and the company maintains an improved well-developed flight reservation system which is based on the database management system (Kemper et al. 2013). The main components of a database are a group of related fields such as Customer name, Customer ID, address, etc., a group of similar records to form a table and a group of tables to form a database (Kuziemsky 2014). The company uses a flight reservation system which allows the user to go directly to the website and book the flight of their choice. Below an example of a database is given where some of the file s are mentioned such as student's file, files for the course of student (Ashley 2013). These entire files are integrated into a database. Below the example of a database is given where such tables are created and maintained using a database named Student Database. Figure 2: Database Management System (Source: Jafari 2012, pp-3770) There are also several advantages of using database management system. The most advantageous point of using database system is if a company has several branches in different locations and if one of the tables in one location is updated then automatically all the tables will be updated in all different locations (Rouhani 2012). Employees do not have to keep changing the tables manually which is a tedious process. Data Management and Data Warehousing This section highlights the two important aspects of Business Intelligence in Information Management System, which are Data Management and Data Warehousing. Data Management: Data Management is all about managing information for an organization. On a daily basis, every organization deal with lots of information. Some of the basic issues which it deals with are data profiling, data quality management, data integration and data augmentation (Ashley 2013). Mostly improving the quality of the data, understanding the data, combining similar data for different sources are some of the major concerns of Data Management. Data Warehousing: Data Warehousing is a tool or system used for data reporting and data analysis purpose. In other words, data warehouse is the central repository for different data collected from different sources (Kemper et al. 2013). These data centers store different data from different location sometimes from the past and are used to make an analytical report for knowledge workers. BI Framework: Concepts and Benefits This section deals with the Analytical processing which is also referred as Business Intelligence that includes data mining, enterprise support system, decision support system, web applications, querying and other user activities (Rouhani 2012). Below an example of BI Framework is given. Figure 3: BI Framework (Source: Foshay 2014, pp-25) The BI Framework has the important components which are given below. Production of consistent and comparable information on performance indicator A platform that evaluates and collaborates best practices from performance overview Improvement programs Performance monitoring areas Benefits of shared communication A table is given below to understand the Business value of BI analytical applications. Analytical Application Business Value Customer Segmentation Customer relationships and customer satisfactions are maintained through personalization. Customer Profitability By seeing the overall profitability of customer segments, business interactions should be made Channel Optimization Cost Management and interaction with customer Table 1: Applications and Business value of BI Conclusion This report is all about business intelligence which is a part of Information Management System. Business Intelligence is a technology driven process which is used in the industries for managing unstructured data. There are certain benefits of using Business Intelligence programs such as improving the decision making process, optimizing the internal business procedures and at the same time increasing the operational efficiency. BI framework can even help organizations to solve critical business problems that are very necessary and need to be addressed as soon as possible. The BI framework includes a bigger picture of data analysis that includes querying and how analysis, enterprise reporting, online analytical procedures which are also known as OLAP. BI programs include data analytics like data mining, text mining, data analysis, etc. This report highlights several aspect of Business Intelligence (BI) framework such as the background of the technology, how it evolved and grew from the initial stage, ethical issues in Business Intelligence practices in Virgin Atlantic, what are the problems faced by the companies by using the new technologies, business intelligence in information management and how traditional file system and database system are incorporated within the Virgin Atlantics flight reservation system. The company now uses database management system for keeping different records of the employees and their target customer. References Ashley, S., G Bonilla, J.C., Eldred, M. and Wood, L., 2013, March. Leveraging Multiple Digital Assets to Impact Overall Production Business: A Model Framework for Achieving Strategic Business Intelligence. InSPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference. Society of Petroleum Engineers. Baars, H., Felden, C., Gluchowski, P., Hilbert, A., Kemper, H.G. and Olbrich, S., 2014. Shaping the next incarnation of business intelligence.Business Information Systems Engineering,6(1), pp.11-16. Bure, V., Blecha, P. and TuÃâÃ nk, P., 2015. Agent-Based Modelling and Simulations as an Integral Functionality of the Business Intelligence Framework. InInformation and Software Technologies(pp. 236-245). Springer International Publishing. Chung, W. and Tseng, T.L.B., 2012. Discovering business intelligence from online product reviews: A rule-induction framework.Expert systems with applications,39(15), pp.11870-11879. Foshay, N. and Kuziemsky, C., 2014. Towards an implementation framework for business intelligence in healthcare.International Journal of Information Management,34(1), pp.20-27. Gupta, V., Khanna, S. and Kim, I., 2014. Personal Financial Aggregation and Social Media Mining: A New Framework for Actionable Financial Business Intelligence (AFBI).International Journal of Business Intelligence Research (IJBIR),5(4), pp.14-25. Kemper, H.G., Baars, H. and Lasi, H., 2013. An Integrated Business Intelligence Framework. InBusiness Intelligence and Performance Management(pp. 13-26). Springer London. Printer BerliFrank, S.M., Rothschild, J.A., Master, C.G., Rivers, R.J., Merritt, W.T., Savage, W.J. and Ness, P.M., 2013. Optimizing preoperative blood ordering with data acquired from an anesthesia information management system. The Journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists,118(6), pp.1286-1297. Rausch, P., Sheta, A.F. and Ayesh, A. eds., 2013.Business intelligence and performance management: theory, systems and industrial applications. Springer Science Business Media. Rouhani, S., Ghazanfari, M. and Jafari, M., 2012. Evaluation model of business intelligence for enterprise systems using fuzzy TOPSIS.Expert Systems with Applications,39(3), pp.3764-3771. Sharda, R., Delen, D. and Turban, E., 2013.Business Intelligence: A Managerial Perspective on Analytics. Prentice Hall Press. Trumpy, E., Bertani, R., Manzella, A. and Sander, M., 2015. The web-oriented framework of the world geothermal production database: A business intelligence platform for wide data distribution and analysis.Renewable Energy,74, pp.379-389.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
There are 3-4 prompts associated with ACH of the first 5 weeks of class. You will not turn this assignment in until week 7, but there are specific Asss related to this assignment each week to help keep you on track. Part Two of this assignment will be an extended journal entry in which you will chronicle various events in your life leading from enrolling at GU, through program completion, and career success. Both part One and Two will be due at the end of week 7. Format Requirements: Please read format expectations for each part of this assignment. Grading Criteria: This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment. Part One: To be completed in Weeks 1 through 5 Directions: Please read and respond to each of the prompts within each week or topics provided. We will write a custom essay sample on Take a Stand or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Your responses to each prompt should be between 75-100 words in length. Solid academic writing is expected. (Please write responses on this document; the spacing will automatically manipulate if you quire more room to write.Do not forget to SAVE the document each time you add information. ) Topic 1 Journal Reflections: Motivation What motivated you to enroll at GUCCI and pursue a degree in higher education? Why is motivation important for student success? What factors often contribute to decreasing motivation? What strategies can you use to rekindle motivation when you feel it is decreasing? Topic 2 Journal Reflections: My Program of Study Please review your planned Program of Study as this can assist you in answering the following questions. You can locate this at: GU. Deed.What program of study are you enrolled or planning to enroll? Identify and discuss some of the courses you will be required to take. Which courses do you anticipate being the most challenging? What GUCCI resources are available to help you with these challenges? What skills or knowledge will you need for this program of study and how do you anticipate gaining these skills or knowledge needed? How will effective time management help you complete your program? Topic 3 Journal Reflections: Leadership and Service What is your view or stance on what leadership resembles? What does it mean to serve others?How will your program of study prepare you to lead and serve in your career or community? Please describe a real world example, of a well-known person, exhibiting leadership and service. Why does this person stand out to you among others? Topic 4: Journal Reflections: Collaboration and Communication Describe a time when you participated in a group that ha d good collaboration. How did this influence the amount of time required to complete the task? What were some key aspects of what makes good collaboration? How does effective communication affect effective collaboration?How might different methods of learning affect collaboration? Topic 5: Journal Reflections: Priorities What major personal, professional, or academic obstacles do you have to overcome to make school a priority? What are some ways you might work around these challenges? How do you organize your priorities? Is there a priority that you will not alter; why? What are some strategies that you can utilize to prioritize school? How will proportioning your academic responsibilities contribute to your college success as well as prepare you for your career path? Part Two: To be completed in Weeks 6 through 7Directions: Please respond to the following 4 prompts in paragraph form; 250 words per prompt. Use specific examples to support and enhance each response. (The spacing can be manipulated as you require more room for your responses if needed. ) 1 . Writing Prompt : Personal Background Respond to the following questions within your response: Where are you from? How have your background and your family values shaped who you are today? What are some of your greatest strengths and weaknesses? Describe your schooling experience prior to GU? What did you like most? What did you dislike?Who was your favorite teacher and why? 2. Writing Prompt #2: Goals and Planning Respond to the following questions within your response: How, when, and why did you decide to enroll at GU? What are some expectation(s) you wish to gain from attending GU? What are your academic goals, personal goals, and professional goals? What are you planning to do now to ensure you will be able to obtain those goals? 3. Writing Prompt #3: Graduation Road Map Use the following questions to help you reflect in your response to this prompt: (You do not need to address all questi ons; these are here as a guide only. )Who will play a key role in the successful completion of your program, and what is their role? When should you meet with key professional and academic mentors? What may you need to explore further, to find knowledge and information that will help you complete your program? Where are the obstacles within your academic plan? How will you ensure successful completion of this program? How will you meet deadlines and requirements? When do you expect to complete your program of study? What type of job do you expect to have upon graduation? Why did you choose that profession? What salary expectations do you have?
Sunday, November 24, 2019
The Policy about Open Educational Resources on the Commonwealth of Learning Open Educational Resources (OER) practice was adopted during 2002 Forum organized by UNESCO. The main concept of OER is associated open and free use of resources for teaching, development, learning, and research. All the materials could be shared in digital formats via various online and offline media platforms.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Policy About Open Educational Resources on the Commonwealth of Learning specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Such a policy introduced by the Commonwealth of Learning provides a wider access to education by reducing costs and improving the quality of learning. Despite numerous advantages, the OER movement undergoes heavy criticism due to the failure and insularity to connect its main activities with larger target audience (The Commonwealth of Learning, n. d.). There are also doubts concerning the nature of motives claimed by the Commonwealth because of accusations of imperialism , as well as discrimination in terms of political, cultural, and economic preferences. In this respect, developing a learning environment for students from United Arab Emirates to study English and IT is a challenge because of the established restrictions. To undermine the rationale for OER, Rolfe (2012) and Willems (2012) emphasis is placed on the challenges of copyright, as well as problems with IT support. In particular, the means of information sharing raise equity consideration for students whose learning skills and experience do not allow them to engage fully into academic process. Besides, developing countries face difficulties in ensuring sufficient IT assistance for students participating in OER movement. Apart from the problems with technical support, Schmidt-Jones (2012) and Lane (2012) discuss the importance of motivation for students to make inquires through OER systems, which are predetermined by the availability of the learning modules.Advertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In fact, most people need constant supervision and assistance for obtaining information via Internet sources. Finally, availability of the resource cannot guarantee communityÃ¢â¬â¢s active participation in movement. In this respect, Scanlon (2012) refers to the communityÃ¢â¬â¢s potential using open resources for self-development. Free and open education often prevents teachers from assessing their experience and readiness to obtain and share information independently (Gil et al., 2012). Therefore, being a teacher of English as a second language and IT, it is purposeful to integrate training programs for students to have a better idea of the movement. Despite the fact that OER practices generate constant information sharing and exchange, as well as gaining experience in online learning, there are still a number of challenges characterized by economic and cultural factors (Richter, 2012). In this respect, Hodgkinson-Williams (2012) recognizes that OER can be successful in case teachers and learners overcome educational gap and ensure the development of educational justice. Sharing educational resources remains a challenge for teachers and students whose IT competence is below the established level (Gil et al., 2012). In order to overcome this problem, Thakrar et al. (2009) insists that OER can be successful in case such constituents as accessibility, support for teachers, accommodation for cultures, adequate resources, and institutional practices are presented. Overall, OER movement should continue promoting its practices despite a number of challenges that are typical of developing economies deviating from Western industrialized culture. It is highly important to reconsider the policy introduced by the Commonwealth of Learning to fill in the educational gaps and enrich learners and teachers with the necessary experience in handling IT resources and integrating distant learning.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Policy About Open Educational Resources on the Commonwealth of Learning specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Support provided for learners and teachers is indispensible for improving social inclusion and developing worldÃ¢â¬â¢s educational network. References Gil, P. P., Candelas, F. A., GarcÃ a, G. J., Jara, C. A. (2012). Open Educational Resources: The Role of OCW, Blogs, and Videos in Computer Networks Classroom. International Journal Of Emerging Technologies In Learning, 7(3), 4-10. Hodgkinson-Williams, C. (2012). The role of postgraduate students in co-authoring open educational resources to promote social inclusion: a case study at the University of Cape Town. Distance Education, 33(2), 253-269. Lane, A. (2012). A review of the role of national policy and institutional mission in European distance teaching universities with respect to widening participation in higher education study through open educational resources. Distance Education, 33(2), 135-150. Richter, T. (2012). Open educational resources: education for the world?. Distance Education, 33(2), 201-219. Rolfe, V. (2012). Open Educational Resources: Staff Attitudes and Awareness. Research In Learning Technology, 20(1), 1. Scanlon, E. (2012). Open educational resources in support of science learning: tools for inquiry and observation. Distance Education, 33(2), 221-236.Advertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Schmidt-Jones, C. (2012). An Open Educational Resource Supports a Diversity of Inquiry-Based Learning. International Review Of Research In Open And Distance Learning, 13(1), 1-16. Thakrar, J., Zinn, D., Wolfenden, F. (2009). Harnessing Open Educational Resources to the Challenges of Teacher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Review Of Research In Open And Distance Learning, 10(4),1-16. The Commonwealth of Learning. (n. d.). Open Educational Resources (OER). Retrieved from https://www.col.org/ Willems, J. (2012). Equity considerations for open educational resources in the glocalization of education. Distance Education, 33(2), 185-199.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Communication situation i been to - Essay Example One thing that differentiated Dr. Smith from other teachers was that he was very difficult to talk to. In the start, I thought it was the huge difference of our ages that made it difficult for me to develop a comfort level with him. But later, I realized he was determined not to be satisfied, though with a positive intention, so that I would work even harder to get him satisfied. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes Jonathan, show me what have you done,Ã¢â¬ he started the investigation. I handed over the questionnaire to him. After having a birdÃ¢â¬â¢s eye-view on the paper, he pursed his lips and gave me a stern look. Without sufficiently understanding the statements, he asked me why I had included certain questions in the questionnaire. Before I would answer him, he questioned about the link of another question in the questionnaire to the thesis. I realized I would have to make my point in order to let him understand why the questions were there. Although it was too difficult to interrupt him in the mi ddle of his endless taunt, I mustered up all my courage and said to him, Ã¢â¬Å"Sir, sorry to interrupt you, but here I want to clarify the validity of these questions.Ã¢â¬ He stopped, Ã¢â¬Å"Ok, what do you want to say?Ã¢â¬ While saying this to him, I looked him straight in the eyes, though with due respect. In all of my meetings with him, I was tentative to confront him or constantly look him straight in the eyes while talking to him. But this time, I did do it because I had recently learnt that eyes play a fundamental role in making the communication meaningful. Once we make eye contact with the other person while talking to him/her, we convey the feeling that we are mean what we say. This casts a good impression on the other person and he/she takes our point seriously. Eye contact is indeed, the most important of all facial expressions because it conveys an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s sincerity and credibility to the other (E. C. G., 2003). Making a constant eye-contact